1.2 Data science role and skill tracks

There is a widely diffused Chinese parable about a group of blind men conceptualizing what the elephant is like by touching it. The first person, whose hand landed on the trunk, said: “This being is like a thick snake.” For another one whose hand reached its ear, it seemed like a fan. Another person whose hand was upon its leg said the elephant is a pillar-like tree trunk. The blind man who placed his hand upon its side said: “elephant is a wall.” Another who felt its tail described it as a rope. The last felt its tusk, stating the elephant is hard, smooth, and spear.

Data science is the elephant. With the data science hype picking upstream, many professionals changed their titles to be “Data Scientist” without any necessary qualifications. Today’s data scientists have vastly different backgrounds, yet each conceptualizes the elephant based on his/her professional training and application area. And to make matters worse, most of us are not even fully aware of our conceptualizations, much less the uniqueness of the experience from which they are derived.

“We don’t see things as they are, we see them as we are. [by Anais Nin]”

It is annoying but true. So, the answer to the question “what is data science?” depends on who you are talking to. Who may you be talking to then? Data science has three main skill tracks: engineering, analysis, and modeling (and yes, the order matters!).

There are some representative skills in each track. Different tracks and combinations of tracks will define different roles in data science.1

When people talk about all the machine learning and AI algorithms, they often overlook the critical data engineering part that makes everything possible. Data engineering is the unseen iceberg under the water surface. Does your company need a data scientist? You are not ready for a data scientist if you don’t have a data engineer yet. You need to have the ability to get data before making sense of it. If you only deal with small datasets with formatted data, you may be able to get by with plain text files such as CSV (i.e., comma-separated values) or even Excel Spreadsheet. As the data increasing in volume, variety, and velocity, data engineering becomes a sophisticated discipline in its own right.

1.2.1 Engineering

Data engineering is the foundation that makes everything else possible. It mainly involves in building the data pipeline infrastructure. In the (not that) old day, when data is stored on local servers, computers, or other devices, building the data infrastructure can be a massive IT project. It involves the software and the hardware used to store the data and perform data ETL (i.e., extract, transform, and load ) process. As cloud service development, it becomes the new norm to store and compute data on the cloud. Data engineering today, at its core, is software engineering with data flow as the focus. The fundamental building block for automation is maintaining the data pipeline through modular, well-commented code and version control.

  1. Data environment

Designing and setting up the entire environment to support data science workflow is the prerequisite for data science projects. It may include setting up storage in the cloud, Kafka platform, Hadoop and Spark cluster, etc. Each company has a unique data condition and need. The data environment will be different depending on the size of the data, update frequency, the complexity of analytics, compatibility with the back-end infrastructure, and (of course) budget.

  1. Data management

Automated data collection is a common task that includes parsing the logs (depending on the stage of the company and the type of industry you are in), web scraping, API queries, and interrogating data streams. Determine and construct data schema to support analytical and modeling needs. Use tools, processes, guidelines to ensure data is correct, standardized, and documented.

  1. Production

If you want to integrate the model or analysis into the production system, you have to automate all data handling steps. It involves the whole pipeline from data access, preprocessing, modeling to final deployment. It is necessary to make the system work smoothly with all existing software stacks. So, it requires to monitor the system through some robust measures, such as rigorous error handling, fault tolerance, and graceful degradation to make sure the system is running smoothly and the users are happy.

1.2.2 Analysis

Analysis turns raw information into insights in a fast and often exploratory way. In general, an analyst needs to have decent domain knowledge, do exploratory analysis efficiently, and present the results using storytelling.

  1. Domain knowledge

Domain knowledge is the understanding of the organization or industry where you apply data science. You can’t make sense of data without context. Some questions about the context are:

  • What are the critical metrics for this kind of business?
  • What are the business questions?
  • What type of data do they have, and what does the data represent?
  • How to translate a business need to a data problem?
  • What has been tried before, and with what results?
  • What are the accuracy-cost-time trade-offs?
  • How can things fail?
  • What are other factors not accounted for?
  • What are the reasonable assumptions, and what are faulty?

In the end, domain knowledge helps you to deliver the results in an audience-friendly way with the right solution to the right problem.

  1. Exploratory analysis

This type of analysis is about exploration and discovery. Rigor conclusion is not a concern, which means the goal is to get insights driven by correlation, not causation. The latter one requires more advanced statistical skills and hence more time and resource expensive. Instead, this role will help your team look at as much data as possible so that the decision-makers can get a sense of what’s worth further pursuing. It often involves different ways to slice and aggregate data. An important thing to note here is that you should be careful not to get a conclusion beyond the data. You don’t need to write production-level robust codes to perform well in this role.

  1. Storytelling

Storytelling with data is critical to deliver insights and drive better decision making. It is the art of telling people what the numbers signify. It usually requires data summarization, aggregation, and visualization. It is crucial to answering the following questions before you begin down the path of creating a data story.

  • Who is your audience?
  • What do you want your audience to know or do?
  • How can you use data to help make your point?

A business-friendly report or an interactive dashboard is the typical outcome of the analysis.

1.2.3 Modeling

Modeling is a process that dives deeper into the data to discover the pattern we don’t readily see. A fancy machine learning model is the first thing that comes to people’s minds when the general public thinks about data science. Unfortunately, fancy models only occupy a small part of a typical data scientist’s day-to-day time. Nevertheless, many of those models are powerful tools.

  1. Supervised learning

In supervised learning, each sample corresponds to a response measurement. There are two flavors of supervised learning: regression and classification. In regression, the response is a real number, such as the total net sales in 2017 for a company or the yield of corn next year for a state. The goal for regression is to approximate the response measurement as much as possible. In classification, the response is a class label, such as a dichotomous response of yes/no. The response can also have more than two categories, such as four segments of customers. A supervised learning model is a function that maps some input variables (X) with corresponding parameters (beta) to a response (y). The modeling process is to adjust the value of parameters to make the mapping fit the given response. In other words, it is to minimize the discrepancy between given responses and the model output. When the response y is a real value number, it is intuitive to define discrepancy as the squared difference between model output and the response. When y is categorical, there are other ways to measure the difference, such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (i.e., AUC) or information gain.

  1. Unsupervised learning

In unsupervised learning, there is no response variable. For a long time, the machine learning community overlooked unsupervised learning except for one called clustering. Moreover, many researchers thought that clustering was the only form of unsupervised learning. One reason is that it is hard to define the goal of unsupervised learning explicitly. Unsupervised learning can be used to do the following:

  • Identify a good internal representation or pattern of the input that is useful for subsequent supervised or reinforcement learning, such as finding clusters;

  • It is a dimension reduction tool that provides compact, low dimensional representations of the input, such as factor analysis.

  • Provide a reduced number of uncorrelated learned features from original variables, such as principal component regression.

  1. Customized model development

In most cases, after a business problem is fully translated into a data science problem, a data scientist needs to use out of the box algorithms to solve the problem with the right data. But in some situations, there isn’t enough data to use any machine learning model, or the question doesn’t fit neatly in the specifications of existing tools, or the model needs to incorporate some prior domain knowledge. A data scientist may need to develop new models to accommodate the subtleties of the problem at hand. For example, people may use Bayesian models to include domain knowledge as the modeling process’s prior distribution.

Here is a list of questions that can help you decide the type of technique to use:

  • Is your data labeled? It is straightforward since supervised learning needs labeled data.

  • Do you want to deploy your model at scale? There is a fundamental difference between building and deploying models. It is like the difference between making bread and making bread machine. One is a baker who will mix and bake ingredients according to recipes to make a variety of bread. One is a machine builder who builds a machine to automate the process and produce bread at scale.

  • Is your data easy to collect? One of the major sources of cost in deploying machine learning is collecting, preparing, and cleaning the data. Because model maintenance includes continuously collecting data to keep the model updated. If the data collection process requires too much human labor, the maintenance cost can be too high.

  • Does your problem have a unique context? If so, you may not be able to find any off-the-shelf method that can directly apply to your question and need to customize the model.

What others?

There are some common skills to have, regardless of the role people have in data science.

  • Data Preprocessing: the process nobody wants to go through yet nobody can avoid

No matter what role you hold in the data science team, you will have to do some data cleaning, which tends to be the least enjoyable part of anyone’s job. Data preprocessing is the process of converting raw data into clean data that is proper to use.

  1. Data preprocessing for data engineer

Getting data from different sources and dumping them into a data lake, a dumping ground of amorphous data, is far from the data schema analyst and scientist would use. A data lake is a storage repository that stores a vast amount of raw data in its native format, including XML, JSON, CSV, Parquet, etc. It is a data cesspool rather than a data lake. The data engineer’s job is to get a clean schema out of the data lake by transforming and formatting the data. Some common problems to resolve are:

  • Enforce new tables’ schema to be the desired one
  • Repair broken records in newly inserted data
  • Aggregate the data to form the tables with a proper granularity
  1. Data preprocessing for data analyst and scientist

Not just for a data engineer, preprocessing also occupies a large portion of data analyst and scientist’s working hours. A facility and a willingness to do these tasks are a prerequisite for a good data scientist. If you are lucky as a data scientist, you may end up spending 50% of your time doing this. If you are like most of us, you will probably spend over 80% of your working hours wrangling data.

The data a data scientist gets can still be very rough even if it is from a nice and clean database that a data engineer sets up. For example, dates and times are notorious for having many representations and time zone ambiguity. You may also get market survey responses from your clients in an excel file where the table title could be multi-line, or the format does not meet the requirements, such as using 50% to represent the percentage rather than 0.5. In many cases, you need to set the data to be the right format before moving on to analysis.

Even the data is in the right format. There are other issues to solve before or during analysis and modeling. For example, variables can have missing values. Knowledge about the data collection process and what it will be used for is necessary to decide a way to handle the missing. Also, different models have different requirements for the data. For example, some models may require a consistent scale; some may be susceptible to outliers or collinearity; some may not be able to handle categorical variables, and so on. The modeler has to preprocess the data to make it proper for the specific model.

Most of the people in data science today focus on one of the tracks. A small number of people are experts on two tracks. People who are proficient in all three? They are unicorns!

  1. This is based on Industry recommendations for academic data science programs: https://github.com/brohrer/academic_advisory with modifications. It is a collection of thoughts of different data scientist across industries about what a data scientist does, and what differentiates an exceptional data scientist.